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Year : 2020  |  Volume : 7  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 4-10

Tear film assessment in sudanese diabetic patients attending Jabir Abu Eliz Diabetic Center, Khartoum, Sudan

Department of Ophthalmology, Faculty of Medicine, Al-Neelain University, Khartoum, Sudan

Correspondence Address:
Prof. Mahgoub Saleem
Department of Ophthalmology, Faculty of Medicine, Al-Neelain University, P.O. Box: 10139, Khartoum 11111
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/bijo.bijo_7_20

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Background: Several local and systemic conditions predispose the eye to the development of dry eye disorders due to tear film dysfunction, which is presented in variable degrees of eye irritations and inflammation. Diabetes mellitus (DM) is among the most common risk factors of dry eye disease (DED). It is more common in older females than males. Tear film assessment can be tested with some simple tests such as Schirmer's test (ST), fluorescein strip (FS) (breakup time [BUT]) test, and lissamine green strip (LGS) test. Objective: The aim of this study is to assess the tear film dysfunction in diabetic patients with ST, FS papers, and LGS papers and compare their diagnostic values. Materials and Methods: In a cross-sectional hospital-based study, consecutive 126 diabetic patients were examined at Jabir Abu Eliz Diabetic Center in Khartoum for their tear film dysfunction. All selected patients had simultaneously undergone ST, FS (BUT) test, and LGS test in the same order and equal definite intervals in all patients over a 2-month period (September 1, 2013–November 1, 2013). Clinical and personal information was obtained by direct patients and chart review before complete ophthalmic examinations. Results: The mean age of the study group was 53 ± 12.1 years (30–78 years). Fifty-seven patients (45.2%) were female and 69 (54.8%) were male. In the age group, 11 (8.7%) patients were of type I DM, whereas 115 (91.3%) of type II DM. Forty-four (34.9%) patients had good DM control and 82 (65.1%) had poor DM control. The ST results of the current study demonstrated the presence of 142 patients (56.3%) in the “normal Schirmer's grade,” 49 patients (19.4%) in “mild-to-moderate Schirmer's grade,” and 61 patients (24.2%) in “severe Schirmer's grade.” In the BUT “FS” test, 165 patients (65.5%) gave normal results, whereas 87 patients (34.5%) showed severe tear dysfunction results, with a highly significant difference with P = 0.001. Whereas, in the LGS test, 201 patients (79.8%) were of “normal grade” results and 51 patients (20.2%) were “mild-to-moderate” grade. Conclusion: DED is an important feature of poorly controlled DM, which can be easily detected by performing a variety of simple quick tests such as the ST, fluorescein tear BUT test, and LGS test. There is notable variation among these three tears; therefore, a combination of any two tests is necessary. There is a strong correlation between qualities of the DM control, duration of DM, and severity of DED.

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